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Nigel Benson

Psychology

b3822779294цитирапреди 3 години
Too much Repression can be exhausting. It takes energy (Libido) to keep Unconscious thoughts hidden.
Jordan Jeffreyцитирапреди 3 години
breath of life”, i.e. “soul or spirit”, loosely translated as MIND.
Muneera Al Hendiцитиравчера
Pavlov found that when the CS (sound) was presented repeatedly without the US (food), the CR (salivation) gradually ceased – it became EXTINCT.
Muneera Al Hendiцитиравчера
Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936), a Russian physiologist who founded the Institute of Experimental Medicine in 1890, studied digestion.
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Associationism developed out of the British Empiricist movement (as we’ve seen, Locke, Berkeley, and Hume), although its roots go back to Aristotle.
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Associationism, in its simplest form, is the study of how ideas get linked together, and trying to find “laws” that describe and explain behaviour.
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Many Psychologists dismiss him for being “unscientific” or “untestable” as Popper would say.
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Sublimation is the name given to Displacement that’s “healthy” – getting rid of stress or anger by doing sport, digging the garden, etc.
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If something frustrates, for example, or someone annoys, then we may “take it out” on someone else.
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Displacement means diverting your energy (Libido) into another activity.
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Regression means going back to an earlier stage. It’s natural to seek situations that give comfort, especially when under stress. Sucking a finger, thumb, pencil, sweet, cigarette, drink etc, is Oral Regression.
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Repression: pushing down unwanted ideas into the Unconscious and keeping them there.
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Sometimes, therefore, it’s better for the unpleasant ideas to rise into the Conscious mind to be confronted and dealt with.
The psychoanalyst’s job is to trace these troublesome traumas, help make them conscious, and assist, the patient in facing them.
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So he split from Freud and produced his own “Jungian” concepts: introversion and extraversion, complexes, archetypes and the collective unconscious.
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Applied to criminal behaviour, it may well be that some individuals never fully develop a Superego.
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This could account for those who show no guilt or remorse for their crimes.
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Whereas the Id and Ego are selfish, the Superego considers others too.
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The Superego is the “conscience” or “moral watchdog” that stops us from doing wrong, especially in the sense of being anti-social.
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The Ego is still, however, essentially selfish, i.e. protecting the individual from harm.
Muneera Al Hendiцитиравчера
The Id is selfish and typically wants immediate gratification.